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Monday, April 22, 2019

THE BRAZILIAN PHOTOGRAPHER AND THE 20-YEAR REFORESTATION PROJECT OF OVER 2.7 MILLION TREES

THE BRAZILIAN PHOTOGRAPHER AND THE 20-YEAR REFORESTATION PROJECT OF OVER 2.7 MILLION TREES

Image source: Instituto Terra
1712 SOCIAL SHARES

The mammoth project has planted saplings of more than 290 species of trees, and seen the return of many species of birds, mammals, amphibians, reptiles, and insects.

BY FINO
3 MONTHS AGO

THE PROJECT SERVES AS A BEACON TO AWAKEN AWARENESS OF THE NEED TO RESTORE AND CONSERVE FOREST LAND

This project is the result of an ambitious initiative taken in the late 1990s by renowned Brazilian photographer Sebastião Salgado and his wife Lélia Deluiz Wanick Salgado. Confronting environmental devastation in and around a former cattle ranch bought from Salgado’s family near the town of Aimorés, in Brazil’s state of Minas Gerais, they decided to return the property to its natural state of subtropical rainforest. The ongoing results are truly amazing.

The Brazilian photographer and the 20-year reforestation project of over 2 million trees The mammoth project has planted saplings of more than 290 species of trees, and seen the return of many species of birds, mammals, amphibians, reptiles, and insects. Source: Facebook/BrightVibes

THE DREAM OF PLANTING A FOREST IN BRAZIL GAVE BIRTH TO THE INSTITUTO TERRA

When celebrated Brazilian photographer Sebastião Salgado took over family land in the state of Minas Gerais, instead of the tropical paradise that he remembered as a child, he found the trees cut down and the wildlife gone. 

He was devastated. It was 1994 and he had just returned from a traumatic assignment reporting on the genocide in Rwanda.

“The land was as sick as I was – everything was destroyed,”  Salgado told The Guardian. “Only about 0.5% of the land was covered in trees.”

Salgado’s wife, Lélia Deluiz Wanick Salgado, had the idea to replant the forest. When they began to do that, all the insects and birds and fish began to return.

Salgado and his family recruited partners, raised funds and, in April 1998, they founded the Instituto Terra and have now planted more than 2 million trees, totally transforming the environment. 

In doing so, Salgado says he has found one answer to climate change – as well as creative inspiration.

“Perhaps we have a solution. There is a single being which can transform CO2 to oxygen, which is the tree. We need to replant the forest. You need forest with native trees, and you need to gather the seeds in the same region you plant them or the serpents and the termites won’t come. And if you plant forests that don’t belong, the animals don’t come there and the forest is silent.

“We need to listen to the words of the people on the land. Nature is the earth and it is other beings and if we don’t have some kind of spiritual return to our planet, I fear that we will be compromised.”

Source: InstitutoTerra

Continued below...

The Instituto Terra committed itself to the recovery of the 1,502 acres of rainforest in the Bulcão Farm in Aimorés, Minas Gerais The farm was completely devastated when, in 1998, it received the title of Private Natural Heritage Reserve (PNHR). The former cattle ranch originally covered 1,740 acres. The first planting was carried out in December 1999, and since then, year after year, with the support of important associates, it has been possible to plant over two million seedlings of more than 290 species of trees, recreating a forest of arboreal and shrub species native to the Atlantic Forest. Source: Institutoterra.org

A BEACON TO AWAKEN ENVIRONMENTAL AWARENESS OF THE NEED TO RESTORE AND CONSERVE FOREST LAND

From the moment they founded the Instituto TerraLélia Deluiz Wanick Salgado and Sebastião Salgado, saw the institute as serving as a beacon to awaken environmental awareness of the need to restore and conserve forest land. 

Recognising education and research as key components of this strategy, on February 19, 2002, the Instituto Terra created the Center for Environmental Education and Restoration (CERA). 

Its mission is to contribute to the process of environmental restoration and to the sustainable development of the Atlantic Forest, with special emphasis on the Basin of the River Doce. 

Through CERA, new technologies are shared, throwing fresh light on existing models of development. The ultimate aim is to engage new participants in the battle to achieve sustainable development. 

By December 2012, over 700 educational projects had been developed, embracing 65,000 people in more than 170 municipalities of the Valley of the River Doce, covering both the states of Espírito Santo and Minas Gerais. Some projects have reached as far as the states of Bahia and Rio de Janeiro. 

Source: InstitutoTerra.org

Fauna are returning: many species that were disappearing now find a secure home in Balcão Farm Among birds, 172 species have been identified, of which six are in danger of extinction. There are 33 species of mammals, two of which are in the process of world-wide extinction (classified as ‘vulnerable’). There are also 15 species of amphibians; 15 species of reptiles; and 293 species of plants. Source: Institutoterra.org

NATIVE SPECIES OF TREES WERE CHOSEN WITH THE AIM OF CREATING A FOREST OF HIGH BIOMASS AND DIVERSITY

The Instituto Terra committed itself to the recovery of the 1,502 acres of rainforest in the Bulcão Farm in Aimorés, Minas Gerais. The farm was completely devastated when, in 1998, it received the title of Private Natural Heritage Reserve (PNHR). The former cattle ranch originally covered 1,740 acres. 

The first planting was carried out in December 1999, and since then, year after year, with the support of associates, it has been possible to plant over two million seedlings of more than 290 species of trees, recreating a forest of arboreal and shrub species native to the Atlantic Forest.

At present, just 10% of the PNHR remains to be restored. And the process continues, with the goal of increasing the numbers of native Atlantic Forest species and genomes in the region.

By halting erosion of the soil, the replanting the ground cover at the PNHR Bulcão Farm is fostering a revival of the farm’s water resources - both in quantity and quality. 

The eight natural springs on the farm have been come alive and, even in times of drought, they now flow at a rate of some 20 litres (5.3 gals) per minute.

Native species of trees planted in an area that was completely degraded have been chosen with the aim of creating a forest of high biomass and diversity.

Fauna are returning: many species that were disappearing now find a secure home in Balcão Farm.

  • Among birds, 172 species have been identified, of which six are in danger of extinction
  • There are 33 species of mammals, two of which are in the process of world-wide extinction (classified as ‘vulnerable’)
  • There are also 15 species of amphibians; 15 species of reptiles; and 293 species of plants.

Source: InstitutoTerra.org

Salgado’s wife Léila had the idea to replant the forest From the moment they founded the Instituto Terra, Lélia Deluiz Wanick Salgado and Sebastião Salgado, saw the institute as serving as a beacon to awaken environmental awareness of the need to restore and conserve forest land. Source: Institutoterra.org

ABOUT SEBASTIÃO SALGADO

For the last 45 years, award-winning Brazilian social documentary photographer and photojournalist Sebastião Ribeiro Salgado has been travelling the continents in the footsteps of an ever changing humanity. He has witnessed and recorded the major events of our recent history; international conflicts, starvations and exodus.

Salgado has travelled to over 120 countries for his photographic projects. Most of these have appeared in numerous press publications and books. Touring exhibitions of this work have been presented throughout the world.

Instituto Terra Learn more about how the Instituto Terra project came about Source: Youtube / Instituto Terra

IMPACT

Act now to contribute
to positive change.

  • 10 things you can do to save the rainforest
    PICK ONE EASY STEP TO SAVE THE RAINFOREST: Sure, governments can create laws to stop deforestation, but what can you do save the rainforest? It turns out quite a bit. Choose just one thing on this list and start making a difference. Over time you can add more actions and make an ever bigger difference.
  • Support Instituto Terra financially
    Here you can donate money to support the amazing work of Instituto Terra. The website is Portuguese language but it speaks for itself. Or use Google Translate to help you navigate.

Sunday, April 21, 2019

List of power stations in Myanmar.




The following is a list of the power stations in Myanmar.


Coal
Edit

NameCapacity (MW)CommissionedLocationSponsorTypeRefs
Takyit1202002[1]
Pathein660Feasibility StudyNganyoutkaung, PatheinTata Power Pathein[2][3]
Mandalay500Feasibility StudyMandalayMudajaya Group[4]
Kalewa600Pre-permit development[5]MyanISDN Holdings and Tun Thwin Mining[6]
Mai Khot405Construction[7]ShanItalian-Thai Development Public Company[8]
Launglon500Feasibility StudyLaunglon township, Dawei district24 Hour Mining and Industry[9]
Htantabin270MoU Expired[10]Yangon RegionHuaneng Lancang, Htoo Trading[11]
Kungyan Gone3,270Feasibility StudyThaungkon Village, Kungyangun TownshipKaung Myat Thaw Myae Co. Ltd.[12]
Kyauktan500Feasibility Study[13]Kyauktan Township, Yangon, MyanmarDiamond Palace Services Orange(Myanmar), Powergen (India), and Global Adviser (Singapore)[14]
Inn Din1,280Negotiating local people[15]Inn Din village, Ye Township, Mon StateItalian-Thai Development and Toyo Engineering[16]
Bukit Asam minemouth200Feasibility StudyunderdeterminedBukit Asam[17]

GasEdit

NameCapacity (MW)CommissionedLocationOwnerTypeRefs
Ahlone1541995-1999[18]
Hlawga1541996-1999[19]
Pyay801982-2006[20]
Ywama1801957-2013YangonEPGE
Thilawa?1995-1999
Thaton?1995-1999Mon state
Tharkaytha?1995-1999Yangon

HydroelectricEdit

NameCapacity (MW)CommissionedLocationOwnerTypeRefs
Baluchaung1681960-1974Kayah stateEPGECascade[21]
Chibwayage992013Kachin stateEPGEFDI[21]
Kabaung302008[21]
Kyaukme140
Lower Paunglaung2802004-2005[21][22]
Nancho?20014-2015[21][23]
Mone752004[21]
Shweli I6002008-2009
Upper Paunglaung1402015
Yeywa7902010[24]
Myittha?2014-2015[21][25]
Yazagyo?2014-2015[21][26]


Strategic Environmental Assessment Mysnmar Hydropower Sector Finsl Report
.....

Dams in Myanmar 


Moe Bye Dam in Shan State which is the main source for Baluchaung (Lawpita) Hydropower Plants
There are almost 200 large Dams in Myanmar.[1][2][3] Myanmar (Burma) has a large hydroelectric power potential of 39,000 megawatts (52,000,000 hp), although the economical exploitable potential is about 37,000 megawatts (50,000,000 hp). Between 1990 and 2002, the country tripled its installed capacity of hydro plants, increasing from 253 megawatts (339,000 hp) to 745 megawatts (999,000 hp).[4] Total installed capacity in 2010 is at least 2,449 megawatts (3,284,000 hp) MW, 6% of potential. Several large dams are planned to increase future hydro utilization.[5]

Contents

BackgroundEdit

Although Myanmar is underdeveloped in terms of its hydro-power potential it is not for lack of trying. The agency charged with expanding Hydro project is the State Peace and Development Council and the current chairman of Sr-Gen Than Shwe strives to build more dams. Shwe who hails from the Kyaukse region, through which the Zawgyi River flows is widely rumored to believe himself a reincarnation of King Anawrahta (r. 1044-1077).[6] During his reign King Anawrahta was a prolific dam- and canal-builder, especially along the Zawgyi river. He viewed his hydro projects as atonement for killing his foster-brother Sokkate.[6]
The total electricity generated by Myanmar in 2002 was 6,614 gigawatt-hours (23,810 TJ), consisting of oil (612 GWh, 9%); gas (3770 GWh, 57%); and hydro (2232 GWh, 34%).[4]
Myanmar's hydro power development activities and plans include five-year short term plans and a 30-year strategic plan. This involves generating power for domestic use and exporting to neighboring countries, especially China, Thailand and India. Total planned hydro power development in Myanmar is 14,600 MW.[7]
Though the twelve large planned hydroelectic dams larger than 1,000 MW get much media attention, there are at least another twelve in the 100 - 1000 MW range and at least 27 smaller microhydroprojects smaller than 100 MW. The rest of the dams are generally lower height irrigation structures.
At least 45 Chinese Multi-National Corporations have been involved in approximately 63 hydropower projects in Myanmar, including several related substation and transmission line projects. The country's State Peace and Development Council Chairman Than Shwe met with Chinese representatives at the Shweli I Dam.[1]
Map outlining the states and regions of Myanmar
Exploitable Hydropower Potential of Burma[1][8]
State/RegionNumber of SitesMW]
MyanmarKachin.pngKachin State392,061
MyanmarKayah.pngKayah State73,909
MyanmarKayin.pngKayin State2117,021
Chin State221,312
MyanmarSagaing.pngSagaing Region212,399
Taninthayidivision.png Tanintharyi Region14692
MyanmarBago.png Bago Region11387
MyanmarMagway.png Magwe Region8123
MyanmarMandalay.pngMandalay Region173,482
MyanmarMon.png Mon State10292
MyanmarRakhine.pngRakhine State14247
MyanmarShan.pngShan State837,699
Total: 1226739,624
An Asian Development Bank’s October 2012 assessment of the energy sector in Myanmar reported on the country’s abundant hydropower potential, with 92 potential large hydropower projects already identified. [9]

Major DamsEdit

Salween riverEdit

Salween River downstream of Weigyi Dam site
Salween River and watershed
Seven dams have been proposed for the Salween River. The largest of these hydro power projects is the 7,100 megawatts (9,500,000 hp) (MW) Tasang Dam on the Salween River, which is to be integrated into the Asian Development Bank’s Greater Mekong Sub-region Power Grid. A ground breaking ceremony for the Tasang Dam was held in March 2007, and China Gezhouba Group Co. (CGGC) started preliminary construction shortly after. China’s involvement in the damming of the Salween River is not limited to the Tasang project.
In 2006, the government signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with Sinohydro for the US$1 billion, 1,200 MW Hat Gyi Dam along the Thai border. In April 2007, Farsighted Group, now known as Hanergy, and China Gold Water Resources Co. signed MoUs for an additional 2,400 MW hydropower project on the upper Salween, an area which Yunnan Power Grid Co. reportedly surveyed in 2006.
In April 2008, Sinohydro, China Southern Power Grid Co., and China Three Gorges Project Co. signed a strategic cooperation framework agreement for the development of the hydro power potential of the Salween River. Despite China’s involvement in these large-scale dams on the Salween, most of the electricity is destined for export to neighboring Thailand.
However, In May 2009, Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao halted the construction of the Liuku dam on the Salween River in China’s Yunnan province, calling for more thorough impact assessments.[10]

Shweli RiverEdit

The 1,420 megawatts (1,900,000 hp) Shweli I, II, III Cascade, in Shan State near the Chinese border, has also received significant Chinese support. Yunnan Machinery and Equipment Import and Export Co. (YMEC) began work on the Shweli I Hydropower Plant in February 2004 and, following the government's inability to secure funding, joined with Yunnan Huaneng Lancang River Hydropower Development Co. and Yunnan Power Grid Co. to create the Yunnan Joint Power Development Company (YUPD) in August 2006. For more information regarding the Salween River, see [A 1]
A few months later, YUPD assumed an 80% share in the project after creating the Shweli River I Power Station Co. together with Myanmar, turned the Shweli I dam into a Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) project, and increased the installed capacity from 400 to 600 MW. At least two Sinohydro subsidiaries have provided construction services for the project, and Sichuan Machinery & Equipment Import & Export Co. and Ningbo Huyong Electric Power Material Co. have signed US$ multimillion contracts for electricity transmission cables and towers. The Shweli I Hydropower Plant is slated for completion by June 2009, and was half complete as of May 2007.

N'Mai, N’Mai, Mali and Irrawaddy RiversEdit

In Kachin State, several Chinese MNCs are involved in the construction of seven large dams along the N’Mai HkaMali Hka, and Irrawaddy River, with a combined installed capacity of 13,360 megawatts (17,920,000 hp) In 2007, China Power Investment Co. signed agreements with Burmese authorities to finance all seven dams, as well as with China Southern Power Grid Co. Yunnan Machinery & Equipment Import & Export Co. (YMEC) signed an MoU with Myanmar's Ministry of Electric Power in 2006 to develop the hydropower potential of the N’Mai Hka; however details about this arrangement remain unclear. Changjiang Institute of Surveying, Planning,Design & Research has also completed a feasibility study at the confluence of the N’Mai Hka and Mali Hka.

OthersEdit

In western Myanmar, just inside the Indian border, runs the Chindwin River, where several potential dam sites have been identified that are likely to service export-oriented hydro-power plants. The sites include ThamanthiMawlaikHomalin, and Shwezaye ([10]).
In August 2001, the Kansai Electric Power Company, or KEPCO, contracted with Myanmar to provide technical assistance for developing 12 hydro-power plants, including at least five sites on the Sittang River Yenwe, Khabaung, Pyu, Bogata and Shwe Gin.[6]
China CAMC Engineering Co. has been involved in the surveying and implementation of hydropower projects in the region. The 790 MW Yeywa Dam in Mandalay Region, which began construction in 2006, is also being financed and constructed by several Chinese MNCs, including China Gezhouba Group Co.,Sinohydro, China International Trust and Investment Co. (CITIC) Technology Co., ChinaNational Electric Equipment Co., China National Heavy Machinery Co., and Hunan Savoo Oversea Water and Electric Engineering Co. Additional financial backing for the project is being provided by the China EXIM Bank.
In addition to the Yeywa, Shweli and Hat Gyi projects, Sinohydro China’s largest dam company and its subsidiaries have been involved in the Kun Creek-2KyaukMonechaung,Nam Hkam Hka,Paunglaung (upper & lower)Tarpein I, Thapanseik I, II, III, and Zawgyi I Dams. As with the Yeywa project, both CITIC and China EXIM Bank provided investment and financial backing for the Thapanseik Dam.
The Yunnan Machinery & Equipment Import & Export Co. (YMEC) has been one of the most active Chinese companies in Myanmar's hydropower sector. Since the 1990s, YMEC has been involved in more than 25 projects of varying size, including the Ching HkranChinshwehawDattawgyaingHopinKunheinKunlonKyaing TonKyaukmeLaivaMepanNam Hkam HkaNam MyawNam WopNancho, Paunglaung, Upper Paunglaung, Shweli I, II, III Cascade, Watwon, Zaungtu, Zawgyi I and II, Zichaung, and N’Mai Hka River hydropower projects, as well as the Rangoon Dagon Substation. The extent of YMEC involvement in these projects, several of which are completed, is unclear, but appears to involve construction and some financing.[A 2]

Lists of damsEdit

HydroelectricEdit

List of operating hydroelectric dams in Myanmar
Name#ImpoundsMW ratingCommissionLocation
Shweli I Dam[11]1Shweli River6002008-12
Shan State, near Man Tat village

Zawgyi I Dam2Zawgyi River181997-5-31Shan StateYaksauk Township21.5646°N 96.8735°E
Zawgyi II Dam3Zawgyi River121998-11Shan State
Yeywa Dam[13]4Myitnge River790201021°41′20″N 96°25′17″E
Dapein I5Dapein River1682005
Dapein II6Dapein River2402006
Upper Paunglaung Dam[14]7Paunglaung River1402009-12
Lower Paunglaung Dam8Paunglaung River2802005
Zaungtu Dam9Bago River202000-3Bago Region
II10481960, 1992-8Karenni State
Sedawgyi11Chaungmagyi River251989-6Mandalay Region, Mogok
Mogok[15]124yesMandalay Region
Zawgyt (1)[15]1318yesShan State
Kattalu (Kyunsu)[15]14.15yesTanintharyi Region
Hopin Dam[15]151.26yes
Kunhing[15]16.15yes
Shan State

Namlat (Kyaington)[15]17.48yesShan State
Chinshwehaw Dam[15]180.1yesShan State
Kinda Dam[15][16]19Panlaung river561985Mandalay Reg.. Thazi Township
Selu[15]20.024Shan State
Malikyun (Palaw)[15]21.192Tanintharyi Region
Matupi (Namlaung)[15]22.2Chin State
Maing Lar[15]23.06Shan State
Baluchaung I [15]2428Kayah State
Ching Hkran Dam[15]252.52Kachin State
Laiva Dam[15]260.96 - 0.6Chin State
Nam Wop Dam[15]273Shan State
Nammyao (Lashio) Dam[15]284Shan State
Chinshwehaw (Extension) Dam[15]29.2Shan State
Kunlon Dam[15]30Salween River0.5Shan State
Zi Chaung Dam[15]311.26Sagaing Region

(Mogaung)[15]
325Kachin State (22°17′0″N97°40′0″E)
Nam Suang Ngaung 

(Kyaukme)[15]
334Shan State
Lahe[15]34.05Sagaing Region
Tui swang 

(Tonzang)[15]
35.2Chin State
Che Chaung

(Mindat)[15]
36.2
Thapanseik Dam37302002-6Sagaing Region
Lawpita Dam391921992Kayah state
Monechaung[12]40752004Magway Region (20.4786°N 94.254°E)
Shwegyin Dam41Shwegyin River752011Bago Region
Total40Hydro plants3,048.5 MWcommissionAll Myanmar
List of Planned Hydroelectric Dams in Myanmar
Name#ImpoundsCapacity (MW)CommissionLocation
Myitsone Dam1Irawaddy River36002017 est.25°41′23″N97°31′4″E
Chibwe Dam[12]2N'Mai River200025°53′36″N98°7′49″E
Pashe Dam[12]3N'Mai River160026°29′0″N98°18′59″E
Lakin Dam[12]4N'Mai River1400Lakin26°35′45″N98°24′22″E
Phizaw Dam[12]5N'Mai River1500
Kaunglanphu Dam[12]6N'Mai River1700
Laiza Dam[12]7Mali River156026°32′11″N97°44′34″E
Chibwe Creek Dam[12]8N'Mai River (Chibwe Creek)9925°53′40″N98°8′40″E
Shwe Kyin Dam10
Shwe Kyin Chaung

(Stream)
7517°58′24″N96°56′15″E
Tarpein I [17]Tarpien I[18]13Tarpein River240
Tarpein II Dam14Tarpein River168
Nam Myaw Dam164
Shweli II Dam17Shweli River460
Shweli III Dam18Shweli River360
19Salween River240023°31′54″N98°36′40″E
Mepan (Meipan) Dam221.26
Kunhein (Kunheng) Dam230.15
Kyaing Ton (Kengtung) Dam240.48
TaSang Dam26Salween River711020°27′23″N98°39′0″E
Kengtawng Dam2754
Kyaukme Dam304
Watwon Dam310.5
Dattawgyaing Dam3336
Kyeeon Kyeewa Dam3975
Buywa Dam4060
Nancho Dam4140
Paung Laung Dam[14]44280
Thaukyegat I Dam45150Kayin State
Thaukyegat II Dam46120Kayin State
Kapaung Dam4730Bago Region
Kunchaung Dam4860Bago Region
Yenwe Dam4925Bago Region
Kyauk Naga Dam5175
Hatgyi Dam[19]52Salween River1360
Dagwin dam[6][20]53Salween River792
Tamanthi[21][22]54Chindwin River1200
Weigyi[6]56Salween River454018°37′47″N97°21′39″E
Mobye Dam57Balu Chaung River168
Datawcha Dam58Balu Chaung River28
Tha Htay Chaung[23]59111Thandwe Township
Ann Chaung[23]60Ann River10Ann Township
Sai Din Dam[23][24]61Sai Din Waterfall76.52014 est.Buthidaung
Laymro Dam[23]62Laymro River500
Shwesayay Dam[21]63Chindwin River600
Taninthayi[25]65600
Htamanthi[26]661200
Tajan[27]67
Nam Kok6842,100 to 150
Bilin85280Mon State
Phyu8765Bago Region
Bawgata88160Kayin State
Ywathit Dam89600 to 4,500Kayah State

Irrigation onlyEdit

List of Hydroelectric Dams in Myanmar
Name#impoundsirrigated areaCoordinatesPa Del Dam ( ပဒဲေရေလွာင္တမံ)1irrigationAung Lan Township , Magway DivisionChaungmagyi Dam13,000 acres (12 km2)
Kataik Dam2irrigation
Ngalaik Dam3
irrigation &

industrial water
Pyinmana Township
Yezin Dam4irrigation19°51′54″N96°16′59″E
In addition there were at least 10 major irrigation dams completed during the period between 1962 and 1988.[2]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^
     Mon Youth Progressive Organization. 2007. In the Balance: Salween Dams Threaten Downstream Communities in Burma; Shan Sapawa. 2006. Warning Signs:An Update on Plans to Dam the Salween in Burma’s Shan State; Karen Rivers Watch. 2004. Damming at Gunpoint:Burma Atrocities Pave the Way for Salween Dams in Karen State; & Salween Watch, Southeast Asia Rivers Network & Center for Social Development Studies at Chulalongkorn University. 2004. The Salween Under Threat:Damming the Longest Free River in Southeast Asia. All available at [1] 25 ‘缅甸萨尔温江战略合作框架协议签署 (Salween River Strategic Cooperation Framework Agreement Signed).’ 金融界, 28 April 2008.[2] 26 ‘激战瑞丽江——水电十四局瑞丽江电站截流施工纪实 (Shweli River Fierce Battle-Shweli Dam 14th Bureau Damming Construction).’ Sinohydro Website, 26 February 2007. [3] For photographs of construction at the Shweli I Dam site see ‘瑞丽江项目部图库 (Shweli River Project Bureau Photographs).’ Sinohydro’s 14th Engineering Bureau Dali Sub-bureau Website, 29 June 2007.[4] 27 ‘中国在缅甸投资的首个水电项目成功截流 (China’s First Hydropower Investment in Burma Successfully Dammed).’ China Electricity Council, 13 December 2006. [5]; For more information regarding the Shweli Cascade see Palaung Youth Network Group. 2007. Under the Boot. Available in English and Chinese at [6] Sinohydro’s 14th Bureau Dali Sub-bureau Website 
  2. ^
     ‘瑞丽江电站胜利实现截流 (Shweli River Hydropower Station Triumphantly Blocks Water).’ Sinohydro’s 14th Engineering Bureau Dali Sub-bureau Website, 11 December 2006. [7] 29 ‘Myanmar Installs More Transmission Lines for New Power Plant.’ Xinhua General News Service, 5 July 2007; ‘About Huyong.’ Ningbo Huyong Electric Power Material Co. Website.[8] [Thanks toCourier Research Associates for providing this link.] ; & ‘缅甸瑞丽江一级电站工程总承建包合同在昆签字 (ContractsSigned in Kunming for Shweli I Dam).’ Sinohydro’s 14th Engineering Bureau Website, 5 July 2007. 30 For more information, see Kachin Development Network Group. 2007. Damming the Irrawaddy. Available at [9]
 .


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