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Tuesday, January 15, 2019

Surviving with wolves

Reality Check: Is China burdening Africa with debt?


China-Africa summitImage copyrightGETTY IMAGES
Image captionPresident Xi and African leaders at the FOCAC summit in Beijing, September 2018

Africa is facing a looming debt crisis, say leading development economists.

"Almost 40% of sub-Saharan African countries are in danger of slipping into a major debt crisis" according to the Overseas Development Institute, ahead of a major conference on debt being held in London this week.

And the relationship between African nations and China is often seen as a significant part of the problem.

Its critics say that major infrastructure projects carried out by Chinese companies in Africa are too expensive, and burden the host countries with enormous debts they can't hope to repay.

The Chinese government is adamant that its economic relationships with African countries are mutually beneficial and rejects suggestions that it is using debt to expand global influence.

So is China really responsible for Africa's growing debt burden?

Africa's debt burden

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) has recently warned that Africa is heading towards a new debt crisis, with the number of countries at high risk doubling over the past five years.

The World Bank now classifies 18 countries as at high risk of debt distress, where debt-to-GDP ratios surpass 50%. 

The total amount of external debt for the continent is estimated at $417bn (£317bn).

Around 20% of African government external debt is owed to China, says the Jubilee Debt Campaign, a charity which campaigns for the cancellation of poor countries' debt. 

This makes China the largest single creditor nation, with combined state and commercial loans estimated to have been $132bn (£100bn) between 2006 and 2017.

A further 35% of African debt is held by multilateral institutions such as the World Bank, with 32% owed to private lenders.

Chart showing growth of China's loans to African governments

There's one important caveat: this data is hard to verify. "China is not a member of the OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) and they do not participate in the OECD's Creditor Reporting System," said Christina Wolf, an economics expert at Kingston University. But China has pledged to invest $60bn (£46bn) in Africa by the end of this year.

Media caption
China is set to have invested $60bn in Africa at the end of 2018

Countries in deepest debt to China

Most of China's loans to Africa go into infrastructure projects such as roads, railways and ports.

In 2015, the China-Africa Research Initiative (CARI) at John Hopkins University identified 17 African countries with risky debt exposure to China, potentially unable to repay their loans.

It says three of these - Djibouti, Republic of Congo and Zambia - remain most at risk of debt distress derived from these Chinese loans.

In 2017, Zambia's debt amounted to $8.7bn (£6.6bn) - $6.4bn (£4.9bn) of which is owed to China.

For Djibouti, 77% of its debt is from Chinese lenders. Figures for the Republic of Congo are unclear, but CARI estimates debts to China to be in the region of $7bn (£5.3bn).

Should Africa be wary of Chinese debt?

China-Africa summitImage copyrightGETTY IMAGES
Image captionPresident Xi with South African President Cyril Ramaphosa (left) and Equatorial Guinea's President Teodoro Obiang.

Fewer strings attached?

Compared to institutions such as the IMF, World Bank and Paris Club (a group of 22 creditor nations not including China), loans from China are seen by some as much quicker, cheaper, and come with fewer strings attached. 

The United States in particular has been highly critical of China's approach.

Earlier this year, ahead of a visit to Africa, the then US Secretary of State, Rex Tillerson, said China's lending policy to Africa "encouraged dependency, utilised corrupt deals and endangered its natural resources".

China's response was forthright. Its ambassador in South Africa, Lin Songtian, said China was proud of its influence in Africa and that Mr Tillerson's comments were part of a smear campaign by the United States. 

"China is just like any other lender," says Gyude Moore, a former Liberian Government official. "China's strategic interest is in African countries paying back debts."

There are many examples of China supporting programmes to help with debt repayments, says Mr Moore, who's currently a visiting fellow at the Centre for Global Development.

And ultimately, it is up to African nations themselves to accept or reject Chinese loans. 

But a severe lack of infrastructure, and the desperate need for modern transport links in many of the poorest countries, make China's ready offer of substantial loans for such projects often difficult to turn down.

And what's clear is that Africa's debt problem is far wider than its relationship with China.

However, China's increasing involvement with the continent and its commitment to providing loans for large-scale projects, mean that any solution to Africa's debt problems must address its relationship both with Beijing and with private Chinese companies operating on the continent.

Ref:https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-45916060


Sunday, January 13, 2019

Apple stock has dropped 38 percent in 90 days

Apple stock was down more than 9 percent overnight and continued the downward trend in trading this morning. In fact, the company’s stock price is down a total of 38 percent since October. This, after the company halted trading yesterday afternoon to provide lower guidance for upcoming earnings. As the iPhone upgrade market softened, it was having a big impact on revenue, at least in the short term, and Apple stock took a big hit as a result.

On October 3, the stock was selling at 232.07 per share, and while the price has fluctuated and the market in general has plunged in that time period, the stock has been on a downward trend for the past couple of months and has lost approximately $87 a share since that October high point.

 

Last night, before the company briefly stopped trading to make its announcement, the stock stood at $157.92 a share. This morning as we went to publication, it was recovering a bit, but was still down 8.19 percent to $144.98.

D.A. Davidson senior analyst Tom Forte says yesterday’s announcement, while not completely unexpected, was surprising, given Apple’s traditionally strong position. “We knew that iPhone unit sales were weak, but just not how weak,” he said.

The biggest factor in yesterday’s announcement, in Forte’s view, was China, where he says the company generates 20 percent of its sales. As the U.S.-China trade war drags on, it’s having an impact on these sales. This could be because of a combination of factors, including a weakening Chinese economy as a result of the trade war, or patriotism on the part of Chinese consumers, who are choosing to buy Chinese brands over of the iPhone.

This also comes at a time when Apple had already indicated that iPhone sales were weak in other worldwide markets, including India, Russia, Brazil and Turkey. This already helped weaken the iPhone sales worldwide, although Forte still sees the Chinese market as the biggest factor in play here.

Forte says that in spite of the soft iPhone performance, the good news is the rest of the product portfolio is up 19 percent, and that could bode well for the future. What’s more, the company has set aside $100 billion for stock buy-back purposes. “They have the balance sheet. They have the stock buy-back program. They still generate very significant free cash flow, and if the individual investor won’t buy the stock, then the company will buy the stock,” he explained.

In a report released this morning, financial analysts Canaccord Genuity believe that in spite of yesterday’s report, the company is still fundamentally sound and they continue to recommend a BUY for Apple stock. “We maintain our belief Apple can expand its leading market share of the premium-tier smartphone market and the iPhone installed base (excluding refurbished iPhones) will exceed 700M in 2018. This impressive installed base should drive iPhone replacement sales and earnings, as well as cash flow generation to fund strong long-term capital returns. We reiterate our BUY rating but decrease our price target to $190 based on our lowered estimates,” the company wrote in a report released this morning.

Forte says the unknown-unknown here is how the U.S.-China trade war plays out, and as long as that situation remains fluid, the company might not recover that income in the near term in spite of stronger sales across the catalog.

Ref:https://techcrunch.com/2019/01/03/apple-stock-has-dropped-38-percent-in-90-days/


Sinper

Saturday, January 12, 2019

What Is a Keyboard Shortcut?

What Is a Keyboard Shortcut? 

In computing, a keyboard shortcut is a set of one or more keys that invoke a command in software or an operating system.

They are typically an alternate means for invoking commands that would otherwise be accessible only through a menu, a mouse, or an aspect of the user interface. These shortcuts can expedite common operations by reducing input sequences to a few keystrokes.

These shortcuts can provide an easier and quicker method of using computer programs. These commands are commonly accessed by using the Alt ket (on PC computers), command key (on Apple computers), Ctrl, and Shift in conjunction with a single letter.

These shortcuts are for the following programs and applications.

  • Word
  • Windows
  • Internet Explorer
  • File Explorer
  • Windows System Commands
  • Firefox
  • Excel
  • Mac
  • Finder
  • Chrome

This image shows multiple shortcuts to a variety of functions that you can do in Microsoft Word.
This image shows multiple shortcuts to a variety of functions that you can do in Microsoft Word.

Shortcut Keys in Microsoft Word

  • F1 key: Get help on a selected command or use the Office assistant.
  • Shift and F1 Key: Review text formatting.
  • F2 Key: Move text or image.
  • Shift + F2 Key: Copy text.
  • F3 Key: Insert an autotext entry.
  • Shift + F3 Key: Change the case of the selected text.
  • F4 Key: Perform last action again.
  • Shift + F4 Key: Perform a Find or Go To action again.
  • F5 Key: Displays the Go To dialogue box. You can also get to Find and Replace from here.
  • Shift F5 Key: Move to a previous revision.
  • F6 Key: Go to the next frame or pane.
  • Shift + F6 Key: Go to the previous frame or pane.
  • F7 Key: Launch the Spell Checker.
  • Shift + F7 Key: Launch the Thesaurus.
  • F8 Key: Extend the current selection.
  • Shift + F8 Key: Shrink the current selection.
  • F9 Key: Refresh.
  • Shift + F9 Key: Switch between a field code and its result.
  • F10 Key: Show KeyTips.
  • Shift + F10 Key: Display a Shortcut Menu (same as right-clicking).
  • F11 Key: Go to the next field.
  • SHIFT F11 Key: Go to the previous field.
  • F12 Key: Open Save As, equivalent to tools menu.
  • Shift + F12 Key: Save document, equivalent to tools menu.
  • Ctrl and A: Selects all in the current document.
  • Ctrl and B: Bold text.
  • Ctrl and C: Copies the item or text.
  • Ctrl and D: Displays the Font dialogue box.
  • Ctrl and E: Switch a paragraph between center and left alignment.
  • Ctrl and F: Displays the Find dialog box to search the current document.
  • Ctrl and G: Displays the Go To dialog box to search for a specific location in the current document.
  • Ctrl and H: Displays the Replace dialogue box.
  • Ctrl and I: Italicize text.
  • Ctrl and J: Switch a paragraph between justified and left alignment.
  • Ctrl and K: Create a hyperlink.
  • Ctrl and L: Left align a paragraph.
  • Ctrl and M: Indent a paragraph from the left.
  • Ctrl and N: Create a new document.
  • Ctrl and O: Opens a new document.
  • Ctrl and P: Prints a document.
  • Ctrl and R: Switch the alignment of a paragraph between left and right.
  • Ctrl and S: Saves a document.
  • Ctrl and U: Underlines text.
  • Ctrl and V: Pastes the copied item or text.
  • Ctrl and X: Cuts the selected item or text.
  • Ctrl and Y: Redo the last action.
  • Ctrl and Z: Undo the last action.
  • Ctrl and Enter: Insert a page break.
  • Ctrl and F2: Select Print Preview command.
  • Ctrl and F4: Closes the active window.
  • Ctrl and F6: Opens the next window if multiple are open.

Windows Shortcut Keys

  • Windows Key + R: Opens the Run menu.
  • Windows Key + E: Opens Explorer.
  • Alt + Tab: Switch between open programs.
  • Windows Key + Up Arrow: Maximize current window.
  • Ctrl + Shift + Esc: Open Task Manager.
  • Windows Key + Break: Opens system properties.
  • Windows Key + F: Opens search for files and folders.
  • Windows Key + D: Hide/display the desktop.
  • Alt + Esc: Switch between programs in order they were opened.
  • Alt + Letter: Select menu item by underlined letter.
  • Ctrl + Esc: Open Start menu.
  • Ctrl + F4: Close active document (does not work with some applications).
  • Alt + F4: Quit active application or close current window.
  • Alt + Spacebar: Open menu for active program.
  • Ctrl + Left or Right Arrow: Move cursor forward or back one word.
  • Ctrl + Up or Down Arrow: Move cursor forward or back one paragraph.
  • F1: Open Help menu for active application.
  • Windows Key + M: Minimize all windows.
  • Shift + Windows Key + M: Restore windows that were minimized with previous keystroke.
  • Windows + F1: Open Windows Help and Support.
  • Windows + Tab: Open Task view.
  • Windows + Break: Open the System Properties dialog box.
  • Hold Right SHIFT key for eight seconds: Switch FilterKeys on and off.
  • Left Alt + Left Shift + Print Screen: Switch High Contrast on and off.
  • Left Alt + Left Shift + Num Lock: Switch Mouse keys on and off.
  • Press Shift five times: Switch Sticky keys on and off.
  • Hold Num Lock for five seconds: Switch Toggle keys on and off.

Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys

  • Alt + Left Arrow/Backspace: Go back to the previous page.

  • Alt + Right Arrow: Go to next page.

  • F5: Refresh page.

  • F11: Toggle between full-screen and regular view.

  • Esc: Stop downloading a page.

  • Ctrl + ( + or -): Zoom in or out of page by 10%.

  • Ctrl + Enter: Adds www. at the beginning and .com to the end of any text entered in the Address bar.

  • Ctrl + D: Add the current site to your favorites.

  • Ctrl + I: View your favorites.

  • Ctrl + N: Open a new window.

  • Ctrl + P: Print the current page.

  • Ctrl + T: Open a new tab.

  • Ctrl + F4: Closes tabs in the background.

  • Ctrl + Tab: Switch between tabs.

  • Spacebar: Click the notification bar.

  • Shift + Spacebar: Move up one page.

  • Alt + Down Arrow: Move a selected item down the favorites list.

File Explorer Shortcuts

  • End: Display bottom of current window.
  • Home: Display top of current window.
  • Left Arrow: Collapse the current selections or select a parent folder.
  • Right Arrow: Display the current selection or select the first subfolder.

Windows System Commands

Type the following commands in your Run dialogue box (Windows Key + R) to run specific programs.

  • devmgmt.msc: Device Manager

  • msinfo32: System Information

  • cleanmgr: Disk Cleanup

  • ntbackup: Backup or restore Wizard (Windows Backup Utility)

  • mmc: Microsoft Management Console

  • excel: Microsoft Excel (if installed)

  • msaccess: Microsoft Access (if installed)

  • powerpnt: Microsoft PowerPoint (if installed)

  • winword: Microsoft Word (if installed)

  • frontpg: Microsoft FrontPage (if installed)

  • notepad: Notepad

  • wordpad: WordPad

  • calc: Calculator

  • msmsgs: Windows Messenger

  • mspaint: Microsoft Paint

  • wmplayer: Windows Media Player

  • rstrui: System restore

  • control: Opens the Control Panel

  • control printers: Opens the printers dialogue box

  • cmd: Command Prompt

  • iexplore: Internet Explorer

  • compmgmt.msc: Computer Management

  • dhcpmgmt.msc: DHCP Management

  • dnsmgmt.msc: DNS Management

  • services.msc: Services

  • eventvwr: Event Viewer

  • dsa.msc: Active Directory Users and Computers

  • dssite.msc: Active Directory Sites and Services

This image shows some shortcuts for basic functions while browsing in Firefox. The keystrokes begin with Ctrl if using a PC and Cmd if using a Mac.
This image shows some shortcuts for basic functions while browsing in Firefox. The keystrokes begin with Ctrl if using a PC and Cmd if using a Mac.

Firefox Keyboard Shortcuts

CommandMac OSWindows
Go back a page.
Command + Left Arrow
Alt + Left Arrow
Go forward a page.
Command + Right Arrow
Alt + Right Arrow
Reload current page.
F5
F5
Toggle between full screen and regular screen.
Command + Shift + F
F11
Stop page from loading.
Esc
Esc
Complete a .com address.
Command + Return
Ctrl + Enter
Complete a .net address.
Shift + Return
Shift + Enter
Complete a .org address.
Command + Shift + Return
Ctrl + Shift + Enter
Clear recent history.
Command + Shift + Delete
Ctrl + Shift + Delete
Add a bookmark for the current page.
Command + D
Ctrl + D
Display available bookmarks.
Command + Shift + B
Ctrl + Shift + B
Display the download window.
Command + J
Ctrl + J
Open a new browser window.
Command + N
Ctrl + N
Print current page.
Command + P
Ctrl + P
Opens a new tab.
Command + T
Ctrl + T
Close the tab.
Command + W
Ctrl + W
Close window.
Command + Shift + W
Ctrl + Shift + W
Undo the close of a window.
Command + Shift + N
Ctrl + Shift + N
Undo the close of a tab.
Command + Shift + T
Ctrl + Shift + T
Moves through each of the open tabs.
Ctrl + Tab
Ctrl + Tab
Go to bottom of page.
Command + Down Arrow
End
Go to top of page.
Command + Up Arrow
Home
Here are a multitude of keyboard shortcuts for Microsoft Excel.
Here are a multitude of keyboard shortcuts for Microsoft Excel.

Microsoft Excel Shortcut Keys

  • F2: Edit the active cell.
  • F5: Displays the Go To box.
  • F7: Open the Spelling dialogue box to check a selected range.
  • F11: Create a chart of data in the current range in a separate sheet.
  • Alt + Shift + F1: Insert a new worksheet.
  • Shift + F3: Opens Insert Function dialogue box.
  • Shift + F5: Opens the Find and Replace dialogue box.
  • Ctrl + Shift + Colon (:): Enter the current time.
  • Ctrl + Semicolon (;): Enter the current date.
  • Ctrl + A: Select all content in the worksheet.
  • Ctrl + B: Bold highlighted selection.
  • Ctrl + I: Italicize highlighted selection.
  • Ctrl + K: Open the Insert hyperlink dialogue box.
  • Ctrl + U: Underline highlighted selection.
  • Ctrl + 5: Apply strikethrough formatting.
  • Ctrl + P: Brings up the print dialog box.
  • Ctrl + Z: Undo.
  • Ctrl + F9: Minimize a workbook window to an icon.
  • Ctrl + F10: Maximize a selected workbook window.
  • Ctrl + F6: Switch to the next workbook window when multiple are open.
  • Ctrl + Page Up: Move to previous sheet in a workbook.
  • Ctrl + Page Down: Move to next sheet in a workbook.
  • Ctrl + Tab: Switch to next tab in dialogue box.
  • Ctrl + Apostrophe ('): Insert the value of the above cell into the cell currently selected.
  • Ctrl + Shift + !: Apply the Number format.
  • Ctrl + Shift + $: Apply the Currency format.
  • Ctrl + Shift + #: Apply the Date format.
  • Ctrl + Shift + %: Apply the Percentage format.
  • Ctrl + Shift + ^: Apply the Exponential format.
  • Ctrl + Shift + @: Apply the Time format.
  • Ctrl + Arrow Key: Move to the edge of the current data region in a worksheet.
  • Ctrl + Space: Select an entire column in a worksheet.
  • Shift + Space: Select an entire row in a worksheet.

Here is a selection of shortcuts for those using a Mac.
Here is a selection of shortcuts for those using a Mac.

Shortcuts for Mac

  • Command + X: Cut selected text and copy it.
  • Command + C: Copy selected text.
  • Command + V: Paste copied text.
  • Command + Z: Undo previous command.
  • Command + A: Select all items.
  • Command + F: Open Find window to search text.
  • Command + H: Hide windows of the front app.
  • Command + N: Open a new document or window.
  • Command + O: Open a selected item.
  • Command + P: Print current document.
  • Command + S: Save current document.
  • Command + W: Close front window.
  • Command + Q: Quit the app.
  • Command + M: Minimize the front window to the Dock.
  • Command + Spacebar: Open Spotlight search field.
  • Command + Tab: Switch between open apps.
  • Command + B: Bold selected text.
  • Command + I: Italicize selected text.
  • Command + U: Underline selected text.
  • Command + Semicolon (;): Find misspelled words in document.
  • Option + Command + Esc: Choose an app to force quit.
  • Shift + Command + Tilde (~): Switch between open windows.
  • Shift + Command + 3: Take a screenshot.
  • Fn + Up Arrow: Scroll up one page.
  • Fn + Down Arrow: Scroll down one page.
  • Fn + Left Arrow: Scroll to beginning of document.
  • Fn + Right Arrow: Scroll to end of document.

Finder Shortcuts

  • Shift + Command + F: Open All My Files window.
  • Shift + Command + K: Open Network window.
  • Option + Command + L: Open Downloads folder.
  • Shift + Command + O: Open documents folder.
  • Shift + Command + U: Open Utilities folder.
  • Option + Command + D: Show or hide the Dock.
  • Shift + Command + N: Create a new folder.
  • Command + Delete: Move selected item to the Trash.
  • Shift + Command + Delete: Empty Trash.

Here are shortcuts for browsing functions when using Google Chrome. Keystrokes begin with Ctrl for PC users and Cmd for Mac users.
Here are shortcuts for browsing functions when using Google Chrome. Keystrokes begin with Ctrl for PC users and Cmd for Mac users.

Chrome Keyboard Shortcuts

CommandMacOSWindows
Open new window.
Command + N
Ctrl + N
Open new tab.
Command + T
Ctrl + T
Reopen the last closed tab.
Command + Shift + T
Ctrl + Shift + T
Move to next tab.
Command + Option + Right Arrow
Ctrl + Tab
Move to previous tab.
Command + Option + Left Arrow
Ctrl + Shift + Tab
Open previous page in browsing history.
Command + [
Alt + Left Arrow
Open next page in browsing history.
Command + ]
Alt + Right Arrow
Close current tab.
Command + W
Ctrl + W
Close current window.
Command + Shift + W
Alt + F4
Open Bookmarks Manager.
Command + Option + B
Ctrl + Shift + O
Open History page.
Command + Y
Ctrl + H
Open Downloads page.
Command + Shift + J
Ctrl + J
Open Find Bar.
Command + F
Ctrl + F
Print current page.
Command + P
Ctrl + P
Save current page.
Command + S
Ctrl + S
Reload current page.
Command + R
F5
Save current page as a bookmark.
Command + D
Ctrl + D
Toggle full-screen mode.
Command + Ctrl + F
F11

How to Create a Windows Shortcut Key

  1. Open the folder or directory that contains the program you wish to create a shortcut for.

  2. Right-click on the program and click Create Shortcut.

  3. This will create a shortcut named "Shortcut to <your program>" in the directory you are in. If you wish to rename this shortcut, right-click the file and click Rename.

  4. Once the above steps have been completed, you can copy this shortcut and paste it anywhere to execute this program.

Once the shortcut has been created, you can assign a keystroke to that Windows shortcut.

  1. Right-click the shortcut and click Properties.

  2. Click the Shortcut tab.

  3. Click in the Shortcut key box and press a letter. For example, if you press "p", the shortcut key will automatically be made to Ctrl + Alt + P. Which means that if saved, pressing Ctrl and Alt and P will run that shortcut.


    Ref:https://turbofuture.com/computers/keyboard-shortcut-keys

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